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Evolutionary Origins of SARS-CoV-2 Identified

The researchers found that the lineage of viruses to which SARS-CoV-2 belongs diverged from other bat viruses about 40-70 years ago. Importantly, although SARS-CoV-2 is genetically similar (about 96%) to the RaTG13 coronavirus, which was sampled from a Rhinolophus affinis horseshoe bat in 2013 in Yunnan province, China, the team found that it diverged from RaTG13 a relatively long time ago, in 1969.
#science #evolution #COVID19
 

Evolutionary Origins of SARS-CoV-2 Identified

The researchers found that the lineage of viruses to which SARS-CoV-2 belongs diverged from other bat viruses about 40-70 years ago. Importantly, although SARS-CoV-2 is genetically similar (about 96%) to the RaTG13 coronavirus, which was sampled from a Rhinolophus affinis horseshoe bat in 2013 in Yunnan province, China, the team found that it diverged from RaTG13 a relatively long time ago, in 1969.
#science #evolution #COVID19
 

Une lecture : l’évolution d’Homo sapiens


Le portrait-robot 3D de l’ancêtre d’Homo sapiens est proposé par deux
paléoanthropologues. L’article publié par le
CNRS

rappelle les conditions de réalisation du modèle de l’ancêtre commun
: « Nous avons modélisé 29 populations différentes, soit 263 spécimens
en tout », explique Aurélien Mounier du laboratoire Histoire naturelle
de l’homme préhistorique. Sur les crânes étudiés, 780 points de repères
ont été pris pour aboutir à un individu type. Les scenarios de
l’évolution d’Homo sapiens sont présentés clairement dans une vidéo
intégrant l’article. « Les résultats de nos simulations tendent à
montrer que c’est l’hypothèse d’une sortie multiple d’Afrique qui est la
plus robuste », conclut le scientifique. Scénarios pédagogiques traitant
les thèmes de programmes :Autres actualités en lien :http://eduscol.education.fr/svt/actualites/actualites/article/une-lecture-levolution-dhomo-sapiens.html
#science #svt #éducation #évolution
 

Une lecture : l’évolution d’Homo sapiens


Le portrait-robot 3D de l’ancêtre d’Homo sapiens est proposé par deux
paléoanthropologues. L’article publié par le
CNRS

rappelle les conditions de réalisation du modèle de l’ancêtre commun
: « Nous avons modélisé 29 populations différentes, soit 263 spécimens
en tout », explique Aurélien Mounier du laboratoire Histoire naturelle
de l’homme préhistorique. Sur les crânes étudiés, 780 points de repères
ont été pris pour aboutir à un individu type. Les scenarios de
l’évolution d’Homo sapiens sont présentés clairement dans une vidéo
intégrant l’article. « Les résultats de nos simulations tendent à
montrer que c’est l’hypothèse d’une sortie multiple d’Afrique qui est la
plus robuste », conclut le scientifique. Scénarios pédagogiques traitant
les thèmes de programmes :Autres actualités en lien :http://eduscol.education.fr/svt/actualites/actualites/article/une-lecture-levolution-dhomo-sapiens.html
#science #svt #éducation #évolution
 
Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world history. #History #Evolution #Antiquity #Science #Religion #Anthropology #Sociology
 
Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world history. #History #Evolution #Antiquity #Science #Religion #Anthropology #Sociology
 
Fascinating finding. "Human and cuttlefish limbs develop under the direction of the same genes". To find out more on how our limbs develop and our genetic connections to other animals, definitely read (or watch the documentary) Our Inner Fish by Neil Shubin.
The cuttlefish and its relatives, squid and octopuses, often strike human observers as floating aliens wreathed in sucker-covered limbs — boneless, squirming appendages that would seem to have nothing in common with our own arms and legs.

But hidden under the superficial differences, a new study shows, are some profound similarities: Human and cuttlefish limbs develop under the direction of the same genes. The new study, published on Tuesday in the journal eLife, lends weight to the theory that many animal appendages, from insect wings to fish fins, share a long evolutionary history.
[...]
It’s possible that the common ancestor of cuttlefish, flies and humans had limbs of some sort. Perhaps the animal used these genes to map the coordinates in other three-dimensional body parts, even one located entirely inside the body.

In later generations, animal lineages evolved profound differences. When it comes to limbs, flies and other insects are as different from cephalopods as they are from us. They have hard exoskeletons, with muscles pulling on them from the inside.

But every time a new kind of limb evolved, it seems, animals did not need a new way to tell cells where they were located inside it. Evolution reused the same genetic program over and over again.

“We’re looking at something ancient,” Dr. Cohn said.
#Biology #Nature #Evolution #Genetics #Cephalopods

The New York Times: Cuttlefish Arms Are Not So Different From Yours (By CARL ZIMMER)

 
Fascinating finding. "Human and cuttlefish limbs develop under the direction of the same genes". To find out more on how our limbs develop and our genetic connections to other animals, definitely read (or watch the documentary) Our Inner Fish by Neil Shubin.
The cuttlefish and its relatives, squid and octopuses, often strike human observers as floating aliens wreathed in sucker-covered limbs — boneless, squirming appendages that would seem to have nothing in common with our own arms and legs.

But hidden under the superficial differences, a new study shows, are some profound similarities: Human and cuttlefish limbs develop under the direction of the same genes. The new study, published on Tuesday in the journal eLife, lends weight to the theory that many animal appendages, from insect wings to fish fins, share a long evolutionary history.
[...]
It’s possible that the common ancestor of cuttlefish, flies and humans had limbs of some sort. Perhaps the animal used these genes to map the coordinates in other three-dimensional body parts, even one located entirely inside the body.

In later generations, animal lineages evolved profound differences. When it comes to limbs, flies and other insects are as different from cephalopods as they are from us. They have hard exoskeletons, with muscles pulling on them from the inside.

But every time a new kind of limb evolved, it seems, animals did not need a new way to tell cells where they were located inside it. Evolution reused the same genetic program over and over again.

“We’re looking at something ancient,” Dr. Cohn said.
#Biology #Nature #Evolution #Genetics #Cephalopods

The New York Times: Cuttlefish Arms Are Not So Different From Yours (By CARL ZIMMER)

 
Why weren't there any mathematics professors in the Stone Age ? And why did we evolve a capacity for rational thought but at the same time such ferocious stupidity ? This review of a review has the answers !

Via @Andreas Geisler.

#History
#Philosophy
#Evolution
#Reason
 
Why weren't there any mathematics professors in the Stone Age ? And why did we evolve a capacity for rational thought but at the same time such ferocious stupidity ? This review of a review has the answers !

Via @Andreas Geisler.

#History
#Philosophy
#Evolution
#Reason
 
Contary to myth, pandas are not 'evolutionary dead ends'. They may now just eat bamboo, but their digestive system betrays their carnivorous roots and shows that they are very efficient at extracting the protein they need from bamboo.
Yonggang Nie and Fuwen Wei of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have spent years tracking wild pandas, analyzing exactly what kinds of bamboo they eat, and measuring the chemicals within those mouthfuls. And they found that the nutrient profile of a panda’s all-bamboo diet—very high in protein, and low in carbohydrates—is much closer to that of a typical carnivore than to that of other plant-eating mammals. “It was a surprise,” Wei says. Nutritionally, “bamboo looks like a kind of meat.”

In other words, “the giant panda does what human vegetarians do,” says Silvia Pineda-Munoz of the Georgia Institute of Technology. “We have high protein requirements, so we wouldn’t be able to survive if we just ate kale salad. Thus, we choose to eat tofu, beans, nuts, and other plant-based foods that compensate for the protein we aren’t getting from animal products. In the end, vegetarians and nonvegetarians don’t have such different diets when it comes to nutrients.” And so it is with China’s black-and-white bear.
[...]
This suggests that the move from meat to plants might have been easier for ancestral pandas than commonly assumed. By simply choosing parts of plants that are richer in protein, they could switch to vegetarianism without needing to radically overhaul their bodies. “If you’re going to switch to a specific plant, bamboo isn’t too bad, as it does have respectable plant protein levels, as well as a swath of different vitamins,” says Garret Suen of the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

These results should help to counter the tiresome myth that pandas are evolutionary dead ends: lazy, poorly adapted creatures that eat deficient diets, are inept at sex, and should be allowed to go extinct. Nonsense. Pandas have beautifully adapted to eat an extremely plentiful food source—bamboo—and they go to great, careful lengths to get exactly the right balance of nutrients.
#Biology #Nature #Evolution #Pandas
 
Contary to myth, pandas are not 'evolutionary dead ends'. They may now just eat bamboo, but their digestive system betrays their carnivorous roots and shows that they are very efficient at extracting the protein they need from bamboo.
Yonggang Nie and Fuwen Wei of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have spent years tracking wild pandas, analyzing exactly what kinds of bamboo they eat, and measuring the chemicals within those mouthfuls. And they found that the nutrient profile of a panda’s all-bamboo diet—very high in protein, and low in carbohydrates—is much closer to that of a typical carnivore than to that of other plant-eating mammals. “It was a surprise,” Wei says. Nutritionally, “bamboo looks like a kind of meat.”

In other words, “the giant panda does what human vegetarians do,” says Silvia Pineda-Munoz of the Georgia Institute of Technology. “We have high protein requirements, so we wouldn’t be able to survive if we just ate kale salad. Thus, we choose to eat tofu, beans, nuts, and other plant-based foods that compensate for the protein we aren’t getting from animal products. In the end, vegetarians and nonvegetarians don’t have such different diets when it comes to nutrients.” And so it is with China’s black-and-white bear.
[...]
This suggests that the move from meat to plants might have been easier for ancestral pandas than commonly assumed. By simply choosing parts of plants that are richer in protein, they could switch to vegetarianism without needing to radically overhaul their bodies. “If you’re going to switch to a specific plant, bamboo isn’t too bad, as it does have respectable plant protein levels, as well as a swath of different vitamins,” says Garret Suen of the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

These results should help to counter the tiresome myth that pandas are evolutionary dead ends: lazy, poorly adapted creatures that eat deficient diets, are inept at sex, and should be allowed to go extinct. Nonsense. Pandas have beautifully adapted to eat an extremely plentiful food source—bamboo—and they go to great, careful lengths to get exactly the right balance of nutrients.
#Biology #Nature #Evolution #Pandas
 

Why homeopathy is successful despite scientific contradiction


He believed that if medicine was to move from sequential delusions towards effective truth, then we should not just look at why each successive medical theory was wrong, but to come up with general reasons why doctors and their patients continually make mistakes about what is effective and what is not.

People inevitably seek treatments when symptoms are at their worst. It is equally inevitable that we will subsequently have better days, even if our chosen treatment was ineffective. Jumping to conclusions, based on simple experiences of treatments, can quickly lead us to error. This point may appear trivial, and yet it is the foundation for belief in all superstitious and pseudo-scientific treatments.

Such a notion of dilution resulting in larger effects is counter to our everyday understanding of the world. You do not make coffee stronger by diluting it. You do not get drunk on shandy. Because all homeopathic remedies are essentially identically inert pills, homeopaths are free to make remedies from any and all substances no matter how poisonous, harmless or daft. On Ainsworths sales site, you can buy remedies made from Asbestos, Positronium, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Brillo Pad and Twiglets. You are not told about such remedies on public blog posts because you are not in the cult and you are still freely thinking.

Sure, why not try some asbestos pills, they will surely cure you soon. Or vanish you from the earth, which may be called a cure as well, depending on who you ask.
#Science #Homeopathy #SnakeOilVendors #Quacks #Evolution #Devolution #Degeneracy #Health #Healthcare #Medicine #Pharmaceuticals #Natural #Confusion #StateOfConfusion
Why is Homeopathy Successful?
 

Why homeopathy is successful despite scientific contradiction


He believed that if medicine was to move from sequential delusions towards effective truth, then we should not just look at why each successive medical theory was wrong, but to come up with general reasons why doctors and their patients continually make mistakes about what is effective and what is not.

People inevitably seek treatments when symptoms are at their worst. It is equally inevitable that we will subsequently have better days, even if our chosen treatment was ineffective. Jumping to conclusions, based on simple experiences of treatments, can quickly lead us to error. This point may appear trivial, and yet it is the foundation for belief in all superstitious and pseudo-scientific treatments.

Such a notion of dilution resulting in larger effects is counter to our everyday understanding of the world. You do not make coffee stronger by diluting it. You do not get drunk on shandy. Because all homeopathic remedies are essentially identically inert pills, homeopaths are free to make remedies from any and all substances no matter how poisonous, harmless or daft. On Ainsworths sales site, you can buy remedies made from Asbestos, Positronium, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Brillo Pad and Twiglets. You are not told about such remedies on public blog posts because you are not in the cult and you are still freely thinking.

Sure, why not try some asbestos pills, they will surely cure you soon. Or vanish you from the earth, which may be called a cure as well, depending on who you ask.
#Science #Homeopathy #SnakeOilVendors #Quacks #Evolution #Devolution #Degeneracy #Health #Healthcare #Medicine #Pharmaceuticals #Natural #Confusion #StateOfConfusion
Why is Homeopathy Successful?
 
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