OK, I could decipher some of it after reading the description. The numbers are easy and the solar system (Pluto's a planet!), but the molecules and DNA are lost on me.
From Cosmos by Carl Sagan (for some reason, the image shown in the book is a mirror image of the one seen here): [The second row] specifies the atomic numbers of of the chemical elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorous, of which we are made. In these terms, the green and the blue blocks represent, respectively and numerically, the nucleotides and the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA. The vertical white block represents the number of nucleotides in the genes of the red creature, of which the total population is the number to its [right].

Vger - the creator does not answer!
Thanks @Khurram Wadee. Did they want to communicate with aliens, or give them puzzles, one wonders...
With such a low number of bits, it's a wonder if it could be deciphered at all.