@Christoph S... sadly, assuming you're referring to Plague with your meme above, the existing vaccinations are not very effective, so may not have prevented the ravages of the Black Plague; could have slowed it down a bit, though.
I'm barely old enough to have met kids in school in wheelchairs because of polio. I wasn't allowed to start school without a smallpox vaccine. Smallpox is now extinct. Extinct. Polio isn't, and that's because of the anti-vaxers.